Mẹ bầu thiếu máu có nguy hiểm không?

Thiếu máu ở bà bầu là vấn đề sức khỏe cộng đồng quan trọng tại nhiều quốc gia. Điều tra của Viện Dinh dưỡng quốc gia cho thấy 36,8% phụ nữ mang thai tại Việt Nam thiếu máu thai kỳ.

Mẹ bầu thiếu máu có nguy hiểm không thì tình trạng này ở bà bầu gây ra hậu quả nghiêm trọng cho cả bà mẹ và ảnh hưởng đến thai nhi.

Nguyên nhân gây thiếu máu khi mang thai

Bình thường lượng máu hấp thu qua đường ăn uống chỉ khoảng từ 5 – 15% nên không cung cấp đủ nhu cầu chất máu cho cơ thể. Nhất là khi mang thai bà mẹ bị nghén, mệt mỏi cũng dẫn đến tình trạng bà bầu bị thiếu máu thiếu sắt.

Thiếu máu khi mang thai là do nhu cầu sắt ở phụ nữ mang thai tăng lên để cung cấp cho thai nhi. Nhu cầu này tăng nhiều nhất vào quý 2 và quý 3 của thai kỳ, tăng lên 5 – 7 lần. Do nhu cầu sắt ở thời kỳ mang thai tăng cao nhưng chế độ ăn khó đáp ứng đủ nên lên đến 5 – 7 lần.

Chính vì vậy, nguyên nhân chủ yếu làm bà bầu thiếu máu và thiếu vi chất ở phụ nữ mang thai là do chế độ ăn không cung cấp đủ nhu cầu. Thiếu máu khi mang thai xảy ra nhiều với thai phụ ở vùng nông thôn, vùng miền núi do điều kiện kinh tế còn khó khăn.

Mẹ bầu thiếu máu có nguy hiểm không? 1

Nguyên nhân chủ yếu làm bà bầu thiếu máu và thiếu vi chất ở phụ nữ mang thai

Theo thống kê của Viện Dinh dưỡng Quốc gia cho thấy lượng sắt và acid folic trong khẩu phần ăn của phụ nữ mang thai nhiều địa phương chỉ đạt khoảng 40% nhu cầu khuyến nghị. Nhu cầu sắt của phụ nữ mang thai cần nhiều hơn để cung cấp cho thai nên tình trạng thiếu sắt, thiếu máu khi mang thai càng phổ biến. Phụ nữ mắc chứng suy dinh dưỡng trước khi mang thai cũng gặp phải thiếu máu khi mang thai nhiều hơn.

Mẹ bầu thiếu máu có nguy hiểm không?

Thiếu máu ở bà bầu không chỉ ảnh hưởng không tốt đến thai phụ mà còn gây ra nhiều hậu quả xấu cho trẻ sau này. Chính vì vậy, việc duy trì hemoglobin trong giới hạn bình thường là rất quan trọng. Mẹ bầu thiếu máu có nguy hiểm như thế nào?

Ảnh hưởng đến thai phụ

Thiếu máu ở bà bầu gây nên tình trạng thiếu oxy ở các tổ chức, đặc biệt ở một số cơ quan như tim, não…có thể gây những hậu quả nặng nề cho mẹ và con.

Đối với mẹ: Dễ sảy thai, nhau tiền đạo, nhau bong non, tăng huyết áp thai kỳ, tiền sản giật, ối vỡ sớm, băng huyết sau sanh, nhiễm trùng hậu sản.

Đối với con: Nhẹ cân, sinh non tháng, suy thai, thời gian điều trị hồi sức kéo dài, dễ mắc bệnh sơ sinh hơn so với trẻ không thiếu máu. Con của những bà mẹ thiếu máu thai kỳ ở giai đoạn sớm của thai kỳ có nguy cơ bệnh tim mạch cao hơn trẻ khác.

Mẹ bầu thiếu máu có nguy hiểm không? 2

Thiếu máu ở bà bầu gây nhiều hậu quả cho cả mẹ và thai nhi.

Vì vậy, các bác sĩ đã coi thiếu máu, thiếu sắt trong thời kỳ thai nghén là một đe dọa sản khoa.

Ảnh hưởng đến thai nhi

Những đứa trẻ sinh ra bởi những người mẹ thiếu máu thai kỳ cũng dễ bị thiếu máu, nhẹ cân, sinh non tháng, suy thai, tăng khả năng bị các bệnh sơ sinh hơn so với bình thường. Trẻ sơ sinh thiếu máu do thiếu sắt có thể gây ra ảnh hưởng lâu dài tới phát triển trí não và hậu quả của nó có thể tiếp tục làm suy giảm khả năng học tập của trẻ do khiếm khuyết trong quá trình hình thành myelin do thiếu sắt.

Đứa con của những bà mẹ thiếu máu thai kỳ ở giai đoạn sớm thai kỳ có nguy cơ bệnh tim mạch cao hơn trẻ khác khi đến tuổi trưởng thành.

Mẹ bầu thiếu máu có nguy hiểm không? 3

Mẹ thiếu máu khiến con sinh ra cũng bị thiếu máu, nhẹ cân.

Mẹ bầu thiếu máu có nguy hiểm không thì nếu thiếu máu nhẹ, sẽ không có gì nguy hiểm cho cả mẹ và bé, chỉ khó chịu trong vấn đề bà bầu thiếu máu hơi chóng mặt một chút, nhưng với mẹ bầu bị thiếu máu nặng.

Đồng thời, có nhiều nguy cơ đặc biệt nguy hiểm cho cả mẹ và bé như: Tăng nguy cơ sảy thai, nhau tiền đạo, bong nhau non, huyết áp thai kỳ, tiền sản giật, vỡ ối sớm, nguy cơ băng huyết sau sinh, nhiễm trùng hậu sản. Ngoài ra, vấn đề băng huyết sau sinh sẽ có nguy cơ đe dọa nghiêm trọng tới tính mạng người mẹ thiếu máu thai kỳ.

Khi còn trong tử cung của mẹ, cơ thể thai nhi đã bắt đầu tích trữ sắt để sau khi ra đời tạo thành huyết sắc tố. Lượng tích trữ sắt của bé sơ sinh đủ tháng bình thường là 250 – 300mg, lượng này đủ cho nhu cầu tạo huyết 3 – 4 tháng sau sinh. Nếu lượng sắt tích trữ không đủ (do sinh non, sinh đôi, do mẹ thiếu máu thai kỳ) đều dễ phát sinh thiếu máu do thiếu sắt ở trẻ sơ sinh.

Hơn nữa, sau khi sinh, sữa mẹ là nguồn cung cấp chất sắt duy nhất. Sữa mẹ tuy có ít sắt nhưng được cơ thể trẻ hấp thụ hoàn toàn. Nếu trẻ không được bú mẹ đầy đủ sẽ bị thiếu sắt dẫn đến bệnh thiếu máu. Đặc biệt, nếu trẻ không bú mẹ mà ăn sữa ngoài (ăn sữa bò) mà dị ứng có thể thiếu máu mạn tính.

Để đảm bảo an toàn cho cả mẹ và bé tránh bị bệnh thiếu máu thì khi mang thai bà mẹ cần ăn uống đầy đủ, ưu tiên thực phẩm giàu sắt như thịt bò, trứng, sữa và nghỉ ngơi hợp lý để tránh sinh non.

Nguồn: Tham khảo

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